The purpose of this research grant is to improve forensic anthropology practice and policy by facilitating more complete and accurate analyses of fragmentary human skeletal remains. Through the term of this grant we developed a user-friendly software (“Fragmento”) that enables forensic anthropologists to quantify and reconstruct fragmentary human skeletal remains (crania, pelves, humeri, and femora) from three-dimensional surface files generated by computed-tomography or laser scans. First, the system serves as an osteological case or scene management tool. All scanned skeletal remains from each scene can be reviewed within the application. The software allows the user ability to visualize fragmentary elements, reject or accept elements. This is then followed by initial alignment of fragmentary elements with three dimensional statistical template for each bone. Upon accepting the alignment of the elements, the software merges the elements and provides a fully reconstructed bone; measurements can then be conducted by the user to apply to regression equations, discriminant functions, or to use with software such as Fordisc 3.0.
During the course of this grant, a total of 24,569 fragments were sorted from the Morton Shell Mound from the gulf coast of Louisiana, 18,373 fragments were coded, 1232 fragments were was digitized and 2061 fragments were CT Scanned. . The developed software was validated using both simulated data, and real data from Morton collection. Software was compared to GIS, same fragment ID’s were matched using both systems and fragments was placed in comparable location on the template. The reconstruction results on simulated data was less than 2 mm mean RMS error for pelvis, skull, humerus and femur. The developed system generated similar results when compared to GIS looking at both the ID of matched fragments and location of matched fragments on the template.
Software development was overseen by Dr Emam E. Abdel Fatah at Department of Biomedical Engineering at University of Tennessee. User interface and automated registration was developed under Master thesis titled “Automated Fragmentary Bone Matching” By Ali Mustafa. Statistical shape models, full bone reconstruction was developed by Dr. Abdel Fatah at Department of Biomedical Engineering at University of Tennessee. CT Scanning and manual sorting of Morton Shell collection was supported by Dr Nicholas P. Herrmann at Department of Anthropology, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX. Dr Natalie R. Langley at Mayo Medical School, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, provided support for data set CT scanning.
Final report published by NIJ: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/249948.pdf
By clicking on the link above or otherwise gaining access to an executable version of the Fragmento software, the party doing so agrees as follows:
- Mohamed R. Mahfouz and any other author, to the extent such author exists, of the Fragmento software reserves all copyrights and any other intellectual property right in the Fragmento software and unencumbered ability to reproduce, revise, and use the Fragmento software.
- Said party is granted a non-exclusive license to use the Fragmento software and this use shall be limited solely for academic or research purposes and said party shall not use or otherwise make use of the Fragmento software for any commercial endeavor or otherwise for the benefit of monetary sums, benefits in kind, or any other consideration.
- Any use of the Fragmento software by said party shall not be utilized to promote any commercial entity, product, or advertisement concerning either.
- Any redistribution, reproduction, and derivative work of the Fragmento software shall be concurrently and irrevocably associated with a copyright notice identifying Mohamed R. Mahfouz as the author of the Fragmento software, copyright 2016.
- None of the names of Mohamed R. Mafhouz and any other author, to the extent such author exists, of the Fragmento software may be used to endorse or promote any commercial entity, service or product or any non-commercial entity, service, or product without the express written consent of said author.
- Any output resulting from use of the Fragmento software by said party shall include a license from said party to Mohamed R. Mafhouz to allow Mohamed R. Mahfouz or his designee to reproduce and use said output in any manner as Mohamed R. Mahfouz sees fit.
- THE FRAGMENTO SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER(S) “AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER(S) BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THE FRAGMENTO SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.